How to implement fixed window Ratelimiter

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How to implement fixed window Ratelimiter

We will be implementing a fixed window ratelimiter using typescript and redis.

To get started, clone the template using the command.

npx degit "nivekithan/ratelimit#template" ratelimit

This will setup typescript (with esbuild) and install all dependencies we will need for this project.

Once you have cloned the project you can run

pnpm i # To install all dependencies
pnpm run dev

If everything is working, it output hello world.

What is fixed window Ratelimiter ?

In fixed window ratelimiter we will group fixed time intervals into one window and enforce number of requests allowed per window.

For example, if the time interval is 1 min then we can group time from 00:00:00 to 00:01:00 to window 1 and group time from 00:01:00 to 00:02:00 to window 2.


Create a new file src/fixedWindow.ts and create a class to store redis connection, window, limit

// ./src/fixedWindow.ts
import { Redis } from "ioredis";

export class FixedWindowRatelimiter {
  #db: Redis;
  #window: number;
  #limit: number;

  constructor(redis: Redis, window: number, limit: number) {
    this.#db = redis;
    this.#window = window;
    this.#limit = limit;
  • #db - It stores the connection to redis server

  • #window - It represents the time interval for each window. For example in 10 requests per 1 second, the window is 1 second.

  • #limit - Total number of requests allowed per window. For example in 10 requests per 1 second, the limit is 10.

Ratelimit indentifier

In most cases application ratelimit against per identifier. This identifier could be ip address or userId or geographic location. That means statement 10 requests per 1 second usually means 10 requests per 1 second per user or 10 requests per 1 second per ip address.

Generating redis key

redis is key-value store. We will be storing number of requests as value and we can have windowId (unique id representing a window) as key. But since our algorithm will also support ratelimit identifier the key should be a combination of windowId and identifier.

Create a new private function #getKey

  #getKey(unqiueId: string) {
    const windowId = Math.floor( / (this.#window * 1_000));
    const redisKey = `${windowId}:${unqiueId}`;
    return redisKey;

The uniqueId is same as identifier.

  1. We generate windowId using Math.floor( / (this.#window * 1_000));

  2. Then combine both windowId and uniqueId to create redis key which can be used to store number of requests

Performing ratelimit check

Create new function check with

  async check(uniqueId: string) {
    const redisKey = this.#getKey(uniqueId);

    const [[incrError, incrRes]] = (await this.#db
      .expire(redisKey, this.#window, "NX")

    if (incrError) {
      throw incrError;

    const totalRequest = incrRes as number;
    const isRatelimitReached = totalRequest > this.#limit;

    return { isRatelimitReached, totalRequest };
  1. We will be generating redis key using the previously defined function #getKey

  2. Redis supports command multi which allows you to apply multiple redis commands atomically.

  3. We will be using incr command to increase the number of requests stored in redisKey by 1. If the key is new, then redis will set the value of redisKey to 0 and then apply incr command.

  4. These redisKeys will not be used once the window has passed. Thus storing these keys forever only increases the storage of redis without any advantage. Therefore we will set an expiration time for these keys and once the time has passed. redis remove those keys automatically for us.

  5. This can be done by using expire command, we set the expiration to be window and set the option to NX.

  6. Setting option NX means the redis will set the expiration time to the key only if there is no previous expiration time on that key.

  7. By checking the returned response from incr command we can know the total number of requests and by comparing it with the limit we can choose whether to accept the request or drop the request.


To test the ratelimiter, initalize it on src/index.ts file

import { Redis } from "ioredis";
import { FixedWindowRatelimiter } from "./fixedWindow";

const redis = new Redis(); // Connect to your redis instance

const fixedRatelimiter = new FixedWindowRatelimiter(redis, 60, 3); // 3 requests per 1 minute 

async function main() {
  const { isRatelimitReached, totalRequest } = await fixedRatelimiter.check("1");

  console.log({ isRatelimitReached, totalRequest });


Make sure you have passed the correct connection information into new Redis() call and verify it has connected to the redis.

pnpm run dev

Then run this command multiple times to test the fixed window ratelimter.